It used to be all so simple. Back in the days when the chirpy stewardess (that’s what they called them back then) would pin little plastic pilot wings on you, airfares changed so infrequently that airlines actually printed them on their schedules. You’d call your favorite travel agent to find the best deal, pack your bags, and jet off. And there were only two kinds of fares: “coach” and first class.

Now, with airfares changing literally by the second and an alphabet soup of different offers, finding the “best” deal is a challenge. And it hasn’t helped that some airlines have removed their fares from your favorite travel websites. But don’t give up hope.  This step-by-step guide will get you ready for take off this summer.

Before you do anything, sign up for free airfare alerts.

Why do all the work hunting down a low airfare yourself when you can have someone else do it for free? Many airfare search and listing sites, such as,,,, (and, of course, offer emailed airfare alerts when prices go down. This is just a partial list; do a browser search for "airfare alerts" to see what's available. These alert services all work in slightly different ways. Some will let you specify airline, nonstop vs. connecting flights, and other criteria. will let you choose a specific flight to track (although that flight may or may not be the best deal compared to other flights). Others just let you know when a fare on a route you specify has gone down in price, regardless of the airline or flight time.

Get email from your airlines

Next: sign up for emails and frequent flyer programs from as many airlines as you can tolerate. Sure, you already get enough email, but you want to fly cheaply, right? Here's why:  Airlines are trying to woo customers to book directly with them by offering special deals when you sign up for their newsletters and email lists. One way they do this is by offering "promo code" deals that are redeemable only on their websites. It might be 10 percent off, or $10 off, or even a half-price sale. They also alert you to special deals that can only be booked on their Web sites or that are only available to members of their loyalty programs.

Once that's done, let the search begin.

First step: ask yourself this question: Are you a flexible flyer?

If you answer yes you're in luck, because you'll get the lowest airfares.

Let's say you’ve been promising your sister you’d visit her sometime this year. But whenever you search for a good airfare, the prices are out of reach. If it doesn’t really matter when you go, then you need to search on a website that caters to those with flexible travel dates. Start by clicking over to,, or (all of which are "online travel agencies or OTA's in industry parlance), and check the “flexible dates” button or link. On Travelocity, enter your origin and destination and hit search. You’ll see the lowest published fares for travel dates up to 330 days into the future. You’ll then need to click on the fare calendars to see when those fares are actually available. Orbitz, Hotwire and Cheaptickets do a flexible date search over any 30-day period you choose. Keep in mind that American Airlines is not currently listed on some sites (notably Expedia, Orbitz, and Hotwire) and of this writing Delta isn’t appearing on or, although those exclusions are subject to change at any time. After you find a fare, see if Southwest, which only lists its fares on its website, has a better deal (remember that Southwest doesn’t charge for the first two checked bags, so you need to factor that in as well as the fare). Southwest, too, has an excellent flexible date tool (look for “Low Fare Calendar” on the site’s homepage).   And check out to see if Allegiant Airlines flies where you’re headed, since it, too, only sells tickets on its own Web site.

What if you’re not flexible in your travel dates? The above-mentioned sites can be helpful in that case as well, but you also might want to try sites such as,, and These are “meta search” fare sites, and although they don’t offer quite the travel date flexibility as some others do, they often include fares that the airlines sell only on their own websites. None of them include Southwest’s fares, however, or fares on the smaller but growing Allegiant Airlines.

“Meta search” vs. online travel agency (OTA)

So what’s the difference? For one thing, online travel agencies have toll-free numbers with agents standing by to help you book or re-book a flight; meta-search sites don’t. A meta-search might send you directly to an airline to book your flight, or if the best deal is on a combination of airlines (say, going out on US Airways and coming back on United), they’ll send you to an OTA to book. OTA's keep you on their own websites to book travel, and don't always have fares that the airlines are keeping for themselves, but they do show you the widest range of schedules and fares, and sometimes have lower fares than even the meta-search sites do (recent example: American Airlines had business class fares to Europe for peak summer travel at prices lower than economy class for the same dates; Travelocity had these deals, Kayak didn't). Plus, they offer air plus hotel packages that can sometimes save you serious cash.

Airline websites sometimes have the best fares

Next stop: your airline's web site. Increasingly, airlines aren't sharing their very best fares with third-party sites such as Orbitz and Kayak. Case in point: recent fares to London from the West Coast for $420 round-trip including tax that were only available on Spanish airline Iberia's website (similar fares were twice that elsewhere). So once you've found a fare, definitely check airline sites directly rather than assuming your favorite third-party site will have all the best deals.

Watch out for promo codes

See those little promo code boxes on your favorite airline's website? What's that all about? From time to time, you'll receive promo codes in your email because you signed up for email from your favorite airlines and online travel agencies. These codes can only be redeemed if you book directly on the airlines' websites, another way they try to build consumer loyalty and cut out the middleman.

When to use your miles

After you've found what you think is a good airfare, ask yourself if it's worth spending some frequent flyer miles instead. There are smart ways to spend your miles and less smart ones. Rather than cashing in 25,000 or even 50,000 miles for a domestic economy class ticket that might have cost you $250 or $300, why not splurge for a trip to Europe (50,000 miles on some airlines) that might cost two or three times more; or upgrade your $400 economy class seat to a $2800 business class fare for 30,000 miles on domestic routes? A general rule: if the economy class fare is $400 or more, spending 25,000 miles is a good deal. Less than that, you might be better offering paying cash and saving your miles.

Check Southwest Airlines separately

If Southwest flies where you're going, you'll have to surf over to to see their fares. Another smaller, but growing, carrier that sells only directly to consumers is Allegiant Airlines (

Getting the best last minute airfares

You'll often get the best fares if you book at least 7 to 21 days ahead of departure. But what if you don't have that luxury? Other than the airlines' last minute weekend fares, which you can find on their sites, your best bet is's "Name your own price" feature or  Also take a look at which packages last minute airfares with hotel and rental car deals. Amazingly, the cost of these packages is often less than what you'd pay for airfare alone.

 When to use a real live travel agent

There is another way to find a low airfare, and it's one your mother probably used. Pick up the phone and call a local travel agent, the kind with a real storefront. As good as do-it-yourself online sources can be, your friendly neighborhood travel agent may have some tricks up her sleeve to save you money. Let's say, for example, that you get an airfare alert that fares from Houston to Honolulu are $800 round-trip. But who knew that the same trip, same dates from Dallas is $300. Or that you can fly from Houston to Dallas for $100 and connect onward? Travel agents also sell "consolidator" airfares, which are heavily discounted deals (mostly on international flights). These fares come with more restrictions, but can save you money. And they can also find you amazing package deals. "Bricks and mortar" travel agents  often charge for their services, but the savings can be tremendous.

Getting a refund when the fare drops after you buy

Several domestic U.S. airlines will give you a full refund, in the form of a voucher good for future travel, if the airfare drops between the time you buy and time you fly—if and only if you fly on the same itinerary. Those airlines are Alaska, Jetblue and Southwest. Some other airlines issue vouchers, but deduct a ticket re-issue fee (up to $150 on domestic fares, or $250 or more on international ones). A good place to track price drops:, which works with some but not all airlines (notably missing: Southwest).

Watch out for fees

Once you've found your fare, your job isn't quite done. A low fare on one airline could turn out to be not so low once fees are added on. Airlines are making most of their profits these days not from selling you airfares but with all those fees for baggage, premium seats, and other perks. The fee for an "overweight, over-sized" checked bag to some international destinations on Delta Air Lines can cost (gulp!) $700 round-trip. One airfare website that tries to forewarn passengers about fees when they search is Do a web search for "airline baggage fee chart" or "airline fees" to be forewarned of what you might pay. And don't trust airport baggage scales. Weigh your bags at home before leaving for the airport, and bring a portable digital electronic bag scale to make sure you're not being overcharged. Southwest is currently the only airline that doesn't charge for the first and second checked bags (within weight and size limits), and also doesn't charge a fee if you wish to change your travel dates.

Best days to travel

Although a low airfare can pop up at any minute of the week, one thing's for certain: it's cheaper to fly on a Tuesday or Wednesday. Saturday is also a low-fare day. If traveling internationally, Monday to Wednesday is often the sweet spot.

Is there a "magic" hour or day to buy?

It's true that the airlines' weekend deals come out Monday to Wednesday, and some airlines announce their sales early in the week, but if you limit yourself to searching just on those days, you'll miss out. A good fare can pop up literally any moment of the week. And if you search one minute or one day and the fare is way too high, don't despair. Come back an hour or two or a day or two later and search again. Not only do airfares change with the wind, but the number of seats offered at the lowest fares changes as well, based on supply and demand.

Airfare predictions

Speaking of "when to buy," purports to offer accurate airfare predictions, indicating whether the site thinks a fare will go up or down, and it's certainly worth a try, but it's not always accurate. To see if an airfare is currently on the high or low side, do a web search for "historic airfares" to see airfare trends over time on a particular route. Two useful sites: and

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